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It is colourless to straw-colored in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international specification.
The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.
Take a look below to learn more about these different types of Jet Fuel that is available. Please feel free to Contact Us if you have any questions or would like our consultation services.
Jet A specification fuel has been used in the United States since the 1950s and is usually not available outside the United States and a few Canadian airports such as Toronto and Vancouver, whereas Jet A-1 is the standard specification fuel used in the rest of the world other than the former Soviet states where TS-1 is the most common standard. Both Jet A and Jet A-1 have a flash point higher than 38 °C (100 °F), with an autoignition temperature of 210 °C (410 °F)
The primary difference is the lower freezing point of A-1:
The other difference is the mandatory addition of an anti-static additive to Jet A-1.
As with Jet A-1, Jet A can be identified in trucks and storage facilities by the UN number 1863 Hazardous Material placards. Jet A trucks, storage tanks, and plumbing that carry Jet A are marked with a black sticker with “Jet A” in white printed on it, adjacent to another black stripe.
Jet A-1 fuel must meet:
Jet A fuel must reach ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A)
Typical physical properties for Jet A / Jet A-1
|Jet A-1||Jet A|
|Flash point||38 °C (100 °F)|
|Autoignition temperature||210 °C (410 °F)|
|Freezing point||−47 °C (−53 °F)||−40 °C (−40 °F)|
|Max adiabatic burn temperature||2,500 K (2,230 °C) (4,040 °F) Open Air Burn temperature: 1,030 °C (1,890 °F)|
|Density at 15 °C (59 °F)||0.804 kg/L (6.71 lb/US gal)||0.820 kg/L (6.84 lb/US gal)|
|Specific energy||43.15 MJ/kg||43.02 MJ/kg|
|Energy density||34.7 MJ/L||35.3 MJ/L|
Jet B is a fuel in the naphtha-kerosene region that is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance. However, Jet B’s lighter composition makes it more dangerous to handle. For this reason it is rarely used, except in very cold climates. A blend of approximately 30% kerosene and 70% gasoline, it is known as wide-cut fuel. It has a very low freezing point of −60 °C (−76 °F) and a low flash point as well. It is primarily used in some military aircraft. It is also used in Canada, Alaska and sometimes Russia because of its freezing point.