Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraftpowered by gas-turbine engines. It is colourless to straw-colored in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.
Jet A specification fuel has been used in the United States since the 1950s and is usually not available outside the United States and a few Canadian airports such as Toronto and Vancouver, whereas Jet A-1 is the standard specification fuel used in the rest of the world other than the former Soviet states where TS-1 is the most common standard. Both Jet A and Jet A-1 have a flash point higher than 38 °C (100 °F), with an autoignition temperature of 210 °C (410 °F)
The primary difference is the lower freezing point of A-1:
- Jet A's is −40 °C (−40 °F)
- Jet A-1's is −47 °C (−53 °F)
The other difference is the mandatory addition of an anti-static additive to Jet A-1.
As with Jet A-1, Jet A can be identified in trucks and storage facilities by the UN number 1863 Hazardous Materialplacards. Jet A trucks, storage tanks, and plumbing that carry Jet A are marked with a black sticker with "Jet A" in white printed on it, adjacent to another black stripe.
Typical physical properties for Jet A and Jet A-1
Jet A-1 fuel must meet:
- DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1),
- ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A-1), and
- IATA Guidance Material (Kerosene Type), NATO Code F-35.
Jet A fuel must reach ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A)
Typical physical properties for Jet A / Jet A-1
|Jet A-1||Jet A|
|Flash point||38 °C (100 °F)|
|Autoignition temperature||210 °C (410 °F)|
|Freezing point||−47 °C (−53 °F)||−40 °C (−40 °F)|
|Max adiabatic burn temperature||2,500 K (2,230 °C) (4,040 °F) Open Air Burn temperature: 1,030 °C (1,890 °F)|
|Density at 15 °C (59 °F)||0.804 kg/L (6.71 lb/US gal)||0.820 kg/L (6.84 lb/US gal)|
|Specific energy||43.15 MJ/kg||43.02 MJ/kg|
|Energy density||34.7 MJ/L||35.3 MJ/L|
Jet B is a fuel in the naphtha-kerosene region that is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance. However, Jet B's lighter composition makes it more dangerous to handle. For this reason it is rarely used, except in very cold climates. A blend of approximately 30% kerosene and 70% gasoline, it is known as wide-cut fuel. It has a very low freezing point of −60 °C (−76 °F) and a low flash point as well. It is primarily used in some military aircraft. It is also used in Canada, Alaska and sometimes Russia because of its freezing point.