JET FUEL

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Jet fuelaviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraftpowered by gas-turbine engines. It is colourless to straw-colored in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.

Jet A

Jet A specification fuel has been used in the United States since the 1950s and is usually not available outside the United States[5] and a few Canadian airports such as Toronto and Vancouver,[6] whereas Jet A-1 is the standard specification fuel used in the rest of the world other than the former Soviet states where TS-1 is the most common standard. Both Jet A and Jet A-1 have a flash point higher than 38 °C (100 °F), with an autoignition temperature of 210 °C (410 °F)

Differences_between_Jet_A_and_Jet_A-1

The primary difference is the lower freezing point of A-1:

  • Jet A's is −40 °C (−40 °F)
  • Jet A-1's is −47 °C (−53 °F)

The other difference is the mandatory addition of an anti-static additive to Jet A-1.

As with Jet A-1, Jet A can be identified in trucks and storage facilities by the UN number 1863 Hazardous Materialplacards.[8] Jet A trucks, storage tanks, and plumbing that carry Jet A are marked with a black sticker with "Jet A" in white printed on it, adjacent to another black stripe.

Typical physical properties for Jet A and Jet A-1

Jet A-1 fuel must meet:

  • DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1),
  • ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A-1), and
  • IATA Guidance Material (Kerosene Type), NATO Code F-35.

Jet A fuel must reach ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A)[9]

Typical physical properties for Jet A / Jet A-1[10]

Jet A-1 Jet A
Flash point 38 °C (100 °F)
Autoignition temperature 210 °C (410 °F)[11]
Freezing point −47 °C (−53 °F) −40 °C (−40 °F)
Max adiabatic burn temperature 2,500 K (2,230 °C) (4,040 °F) Open Air Burn temperature: 1,030 °C (1,890 °F)[12][13][14]
Density at 15 °C (59 °F) 0.804 kg/L (6.71 lb/US gal) 0.820 kg/L (6.84 lb/US gal)
Specific energy 43.15 MJ/kg 43.02 MJ/kg
Energy density 34.7 MJ/L 35.3 MJ/L

Jet B

Jet B is a fuel in the naphtha-kerosene region that is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance. However, Jet B's lighter composition makes it more dangerous to handle.[9] For this reason it is rarely used, except in very cold climates. A blend of approximately 30% kerosene and 70% gasoline, it is known as wide-cut fuel. It has a very low freezing point of −60 °C (−76 °F) and a low flash point as well. It is primarily used in some military aircraft. It is also used in Canada, Alaska and sometimes Russia because of its freezing point.